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The basic methodology of collection does not change in the urban environment; however, the density of the population results in a proportional increase in the number of collectors required. This need for additional assets has been illustrated by recent operations in Somalia, Haiti, Bosnia, and Kosovo. CI personnel from the d MI Group also deploy individually to support operations worldwide. These MI elements provide peacetime support to the unified command and add a consistent, forward-deployed presence in a particular theater of operations.
This exploitation provides valuable intelligence to meet the critical requirements affecting the MDMP.
The simultaneous digital interaction between operational HUMINT and CI teams and analytical elements provides the deployed commander with near- instantaneous information. This rapid transmission of critical intelligence to the user gives the supported command an information edge and a more complete vision of the battlespace. Individually and collectively, these assets provide commanders throughout the brigade with the capability to plan and direct ISR operations, collect and process information, produce relevant intelligence, and disseminate combat information and intelligence to those who need it, when they need it.
The brigade and its subordinate units possess organic ISR assets that enable the above actions. The functions and responsibilities of these assets are the same as at higher echelons. Commanders must identify their requirements early and establish proactive coordination both in garrison and while deployed with their RC counterparts to fully integrate them during all phases of training and operations.
During operations that include significant RC participation, an RC liaison officer LNO normally will be assigned, either temporarily or permanently at higher echelons , at the appropriate level of command. The commander and staff must ensure that the RC LNO is involved in all aspects of operational planning and execution. There are three general categories of RC augmentation: The activation of the RC of these units is required for their full operational capability.
This usually occurs when a unit has the C2 structure but needs either additional personnel or additional capability within the command structure. Individual augmentation is the easiest method of integration since the individual is integrated in the same manner as any replacement. The augmented unit is normally required to provide all equipment other than initial issue-type equipment. When developing requirements, the requesting unit must be sure to articulate its need accurately, specifying required skills, numbers, and any additional skill identifiers ASIs.
The requesting unit needs to be aware of the time required to activate the requested RC and that there may be differences in levels of training or equipment.
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Timelines will vary from unit to unit and mission to mission. Normally, this is due to the limited amount of training time. Commanders should identify available training opportunities and request the participation of personnel identified for augmentation. If the augmentation is by individuals, then they will fall under the C2 of the gaining units.
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This timeline begins on the date of mobilization and ends on the day the soldier leaves active duty status. Deployed units must take this into account when conducting continuous operations and must identify the requirement to replace RC forces early enough to allow for the required training and handoff procedures. Commanders should try to capitalize on these skills. They work aboard ships and at sea points of embarkation and debarkation.
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While trained HUMINT personnel and CI agents are the primary collectors and processors of human information on the battlefield, other elements can gain information that could answer questions important to a deployed commander. Long-range surveillance LRS is often employed when discreet observation of an activity is necessary over a long period of time or when a collection system that can respond to immediate redirection is necessary. Using size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment SALUTE spot reporting, unit patrols and scouts give you an eye on the battlefield that can provide very accurate information.
During operations from peacetime military engagements to MTW, unit patrols and scouts often patrol villages or populated areas that are contentious and therefore of interest. Through mission reporting and debriefing by their unit S2 or HUMINT collector, valuable information on the current status of an area will enter into intelligence reporting channels or intelligence architecture, potentially answering intelligence requirements.
MPs also man checkpoints and traffic control points where they interact with large groups of the civilian populace and encounter people and situations that often answer intelligence or force protection requirements. CA association with collection operations could lead to suspicion from their local contacts, but this should not preclude tactical HUMINT and CI elements from working closely with CA units or, at a minimum, debriefing CA personnel to gather information that meets intelligence requirements and enhances your force protection program. A deployed commander needs this information to determine the effectiveness of the information operations plan OPLAN.
PSYOP elements produce and disseminate intelligence products based partially on their interaction with the civilian populace. While their primary mission is not to collect HUMINT, their observation of and interaction with the local population provides them access to information that often answers collection requirements. SOF are inserted into hostile territory to conduct sensitive operations that support US national objectives. During these missions, SOF units often come in contact with the local population and gather information that meets intelligence requirements. Chapter 2 Organization and Structure The success of the HUMINT and CI collection effort depends on a complex interrelationship between command guidance, requirements, technical support, and collection assets.
They must be flexible, versatile, and prepared to conduct HUMINT and CI analysis, collection, investigations, and operations in support of any echelon of command. Commanders must consider the proper force structure and capabilities needed to meet requirements. These organizations at each echelon serve as coordination cells that— These teams are self-contained modular elements with organic transportation, communications, automation, and special technology-aided applications. Tactical HUMINT is layered with sections that operate collectively to ensure the execution of proper technical quality and control measures over both operations and reporting.
It also precludes any one element from becoming inundated with the large quantities of information as well as operational and technical reporting generated by tactical HUMINT operations. The interface between technical managers, analysts, and collectors ensure that the tactical HUMINT assets stay on target and that the commander receives timely and accurate information. Figure Regardless of the echelon, the following six basic elements work together to provide the deployed commander with well-focused, thoroughly planned collection and support.
Each element has specific management, analytical, or operational responsibilities, and all elements combined are the backbone of tactical HUMINT collection. Each piece of the structure builds on the next and is based on the size, complexity, and type of operation. The military departments always remain in control of CI and law enforcement investigations. This ensures that all CI activities are adequately coordinated and deconflicted and all sources are properly registered. The HOC— It determines gaps in reporting and coordinates with the collection manager to cross-cue other intelligence sensor systems.
The ACE and JISE CI analysis team analyzes threat intelligence collection, and the intelligence collection efforts of foreign persons and organizations involved in terrorism and sabotage, in order to develop countermeasures against them. See FM 2- In smaller operations these functions can be performed by an OMT. Primary augmentation is by the addition of military or civilian linguists or security support such as MPs. Basic automation and technical support equipment see Chapter 8 needs to be standardized to maximize flexibility and interoperability.
Commanders must be aware of the command, support, and technical control parameters that exist between the unit and the HUMINT and CI assets to ensure an efficient working relationship and to guarantee they receive the maximum support possible. MI commanders are responsible for task organization, mission tasking, designation of subordinate AOs, resource allocation, logistics, training, and support of all intelligence disciplines assigned to their units to ensure mission accomplishment.
He restates the battalion mission, designs the concept of operations, task organizes the battalion, and provides support to subordinate units.
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While the unit may have a tendency to train every intelligence task, the commander must ensure that only mission-essential task list METL -related intelligence and non-intelligence tasks are trained. The MI company commander answers to the battalion commander for the discipline, combat readiness, and training of his unit. The company commander must know the capabilities and limitations of assigned and attached personnel and equipment. During operations, he has the same general command responsibilities as the battalion commander.
The commander is responsible for C2 functions, administrative and Uniform Code of Military Justice UCMJ actions, logistical support, and technical support to that unit. The commander is responsible for C2 functions, administrative and UCMJ actions, logistical support, and technical support for that unit. The attachment orders will describe every aspect of the command relationship between the attached unit and the organization. This includes the responsibilities of the unit, the parent unit, and the attached asset as well as the expected duration and specific purpose of the attachment.
If the commander of the supported unit is unable to provide the necessary HUMINT and CI-specific equipment or support infrastructure to include technical support to the asset, the parent unit must provide it; this support should be specified as such in the attachment orders. The parent unit retains responsibility for administrative and UCMJ actions, logistical support, and technical support. The supported unit generally provides limited logistical support to the asset in order to facilitate accomplishing the mission.
The determination of support relationships must balance the benefits of having HUMINT and CI assets support a particular unit with the benefits of support to the force as a whole during an operation.