It has provided me with an opportunity to revisit and apply many concepts and explanations, reconnect with valued colleagues and connect with new ones, and learn much from the process. My invitation to you, the reader, is to look at the contents of this volume in a variety of ways. Take a basic look—familiarize yourself with the entries and acquire fundamental information about their models and modes. Take a deep look—really dig into the entries and suggested readings to analyze their logic and comprehend the images and principles that they advance about management reality.
Take a hard look—assess the validity and importance of the theories i. Take a progressive look— move beyond consumer to use them as a platform for buttressing and extending our field. Take a broad look—see how they relate to each other i. Take a reflective look—think about how they can help you on a customized path of personal development and growth. Finally, take a practical look—actively apply them in an integrated, synergistic paradigm to manage for success.
Lillian was the first woman to obtain a PhD in management; she made numerous contributions to industrial psychology. Also credited for beginning t-groups. Simon, Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organizations , based on his doctoral dissertation—coins the terms bounded rationality people have limits or boundaries on the amount of information they can process to make a decision and satisficing selecting the first solution that satisfies decision criteria even though better solutions might exist related to decision making. Drucker, The Practice of Management — examines management and the managerial role as a distinct business function bridging theory and practice.
French and Bertram Raven, The Bases of Social Power —argues that five types, or bases, of power coercive, reward, legitimate, referent, and expert are linked with leadership. Theory X. Murray , need to excel, to perform against standards, and to win; McClelland extended his theory to other acquired needs such as need for power and need for affiliation. Burns and G. Stalker, The Management of Innovation— examines mechanistic and organic organizational designs and the environments conducive for each.
Edwards Deming is also associated with this concept, where small groups of employees and supervisors meet regularly to solve quality issues and operational improvements. Blau and W. Richard Scott, Formal Organizations: A Comparative Approach , one of the founding texts of organizational sociology— analyzes formal organization in a way that goes beyond individuals and groups to explore organizations as collective actors. Norman, Toward an Adequate Taxonomy of Personality Attributes: Replicated Factor Structure in Peer Nomination Personality Ratings— finds five essentially orthogonal personality factors empirically derived that were the basis for Big Five personality traits openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism.
Diedrick Snoek, and Robert Rosenthal, Organizational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity— examines role expectations in the organizational environment leading to conflict and ambiguity such that maintained stress leads to health issues and diminished sense of well-being.
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Stacy Adams, Inequity in Social Exchanges— uses equity theory to argue that employees compare their ratio of inputs to outputs from the job with others; an imbalance leads to actions to reduce the perceived inequity. Kahn, The Social Psychology of Organizations— presents a [Page ] unified, open systems approach extending organizational theory beyond the boundaries of a single organization. Lorsch, Organization and Environment: Managing Differentiation and Integration— studies organizational differentiation and integration, suggesting that successful organizations match their structure to the nature of the environment.
Locke and J. Skinner, Contingencies of Reinforcement: A Theoretical Analysis— argues that operant conditioning can shape behavior; identifies a reinforcer as any contingent stimulus that increases the target behavior. Richard Hackman and Greg R.
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Pugh and David J. Hickson, Organizational Structure in Its Context: The Aston Programme I and subsequent series of empirical findings from the Aston Program —systematically analyzes dimensions of organizational structure applicable to all organizations.
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Revans, Action Learning: New Techniques for Management— allows learners to reflect and review their own experiences and behaviors as a basis for making improvements. Justice is a central characteristic of moral reasoning. Ouchi, Theory Z: How American Management Can Meet the Japanese Challenge— argues that American companies should employee Japanese-style management techniques, the essence of which is a unique way of managing people e. Edwards Deming, Out of the Crisis— presents an approach to a total quality management system for improving quality, productivity, and competitiveness.
Quinn and J. Weisbord, Productive Workplaces: Organizing and Managing for Dignity, Meaning, and Community— provides a foundation for large-group interventions, an important form of organizational change. Pasmore and R. Woodman —first introduces appreciative inquiry and its underlying philosophy as a new approach to intervention. Schein, Career Anchors— identifies eight major career themes e.
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Burt, Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition— introduces and applies social network analysis to the understanding patterns of relationships among individuals and organizations. Prahalad, Competing for the Future— redefines corporate strategy, indicating that companies need to develop a view of the future based on industry foresight to create a new competitive space.
Duane Ireland, Michael Camp, and Donald Sexton, Strategic Entrepreneurship: Creating a New Mindset— identifies how firms can identify entrepreneurial opportunities by focusing on the most promising prospects and exploiting them using a strategic business plan. Prahalad, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid— shows how the billions of poor people in the world represent a great, untapped market; serving this population helps companies and helps the economic aspirations of those being served. It is possible to create more insightful knowledge for theory and practice if academics and practitioners collaborate.
Acquired motives—achievement, affiliation, and power—are important for managerial performance and should be used for global selection and assessment of managers. Information technologies do not automatically change behavior or improve effectiveness; this depends on how effectively managers facilitate the appropriation of information technology IT by users. If jobs are structured as joint tasks in which responsibility for results is shared, then employees develop stronger affective commitments to the organization. The interests of shareholders and managers tend to differ but can be aligned to achieve the maximization of shareholder value.
Managers can utilize a relatively easy and robust process for establishing priorities in multicriteria decision settings. Teams, organizations, and society evolve in whatever direction people collectively, passionately, and persistently ask questions about. Significant competitive advantage can be gained from innovations that change the linkages between product components. Social pressure can convince group members to falsify their beliefs in order to achieve group consensus.
People make organizations through a process of attracting and selecting matching employees and attritioning out nonmatching employees. Leaders who remain true to their personal values and convictions and display consistency between their words and deeds will foster elevated levels of follower trust and performance.
Academia perpetuates a number of bad management theories that promote detrimental business practices, and those theories must be carefully reexamined.
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Strategy development and execution can be enabled by a balanced set of performance measures focusing on organizational goals—financial, customer, processes, and learning and growth. Human resource HR management systems are most effective when they are designed to support strategic business objectives.
What Is In a Personnel File?
Managers will behave differently from what is assumed in rational actor views of the organization both with respect to internal processes and relations to the environment. Individual differences along five personality traits extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience affect many management issues. The concept of rational economic man must be reconciled with the many cognitive, perceptual, situational, and other limits on rationality that influence decision makers to make satisfactory rather than optimal choices.
Efforts at creative idea generation deserve focused attention and can benefit from adopting a formalized structure. Bureaucracy remains the dominant, albeit an imperfect and double-edged, system of administration for shaping intendedly rational, goal-oriented human interactions through objective knowledge and scientific analysis.
Firms in many parts of the world are part of business groups and derive unique advantages as well as disadvantages from their affiliation. Companies can create value through the configuration and coordination of their multibusiness activities by aligning vision, resources, businesses, and role of the headquarters. Dramatic business improvement can be accomplished with radical process redesign that is supported by information technology.
Human creativity requires individuals to generate and test low-probability ideas whose utilities are unknown in advance. Career choice should be seen as an ongoing journey of exploration and self-construction driven by patterns of self-perceived competence, motivators, and values that guide and constrain development. Power is not a thing that people have but a social relation that is dynamic, potentially unstable, and resisted.agendapop.cl/wp-content/code/
The Encyclopedia of Human Resource Management, Volume 2 : HR Forms and Job Aids
In every organization, competing and contradictory values exist; the most effective organizations, as well as the most effective leaders, are paradoxical—they simultaneously represent and display competing values. Managers need to understand how individuals and firms interact and not only how they perform individually; organizational performance depends on interdependent interactions within the system as a whole.
The work environment can be as important for creativity as employee talent; creativity should be highest when intrinsically motivated, expert, creative thinkers work in a social environment that supports creativity. Managers can choose from a variety of conflict styles, varying in concern for self and for others, which will be most effective in different situations.
There is no one best way to manage people or to design an organization; rather, the choices which are made must fit the situation faced. Leadership behaviors will not necessarily yield the same results in all situations; a fit between leadership style and contingency variables is positively related to leadership effectiveness. Core competence—firm-specific bundles of skills, insights, and capabilities gained from accumulated knowledge, learning, and investment—enable organizations to create, innovate, and deliver value to its stakeholders.
Business is embedded in society; therefore, every business decision must consider the resulting direct or indirect social impacts. Management and organization need to be assessed broadly; in their operations and in outcomes, there are dark aspects calling for careful scrutiny and exploration. Organizations and the various forms of knowledge and the human identities of members are products of complex interaction processes conducted under conditions of inequality.